Search Results for "alonso"

Structure of GlyGly

Continuing their application of laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave (LA-MB-FTMW) spectroscopy and computational chemistry to biochemical molecules (see these previous posts), the Alonso group reports on the structure of the glycine-glycine dipeptide 1.1 The microwave spectrum shows three different conformers. MP2/6-311++G(d,p) computations, the same method they have previously utilized for predicting geometries, revealed a number of different conformations. By matching the spectroscopic parameters obtained from the spectrum with those of the computed structures, they proposed the three conformations 1a, 1b, and 1c, shown in Figure 1.

1a

1b

1c

Figure 1. ωb97xd/6-31G(d) optimized structures of the three conformers of 1.
Note that the authors did not report their structures in their supporting materials(!) so I have optimized them.

The structures of conformers 1a and 1b are nearly planar. MP2 predicts a non-planar rotomer of 1a, which brings the carboxyl group out of plane, to be the lowest conformation in terms of electronic energy. With the M06-2x functional, this non-planar rotomer is about isoenergetic with 1a. With all computational levels 1a is the lowest in free energy. The barrier for rotation between the non-planar rotomer and 1a is very small, and this explains why it is not observed in the supersonic expansion.

References

1) Cabezas, C.; Varela, M.; Alonso, J. L., "The Structure of the Elusive Simplest Dipeptide Gly-Gly." Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2017, 56, 6420-6425, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201702425.

InChIs

1: InChI=1S/C4H8N2O3/c5-1-3(7)6-2-4(8)9/h1-2,5H2,(H,6,7)(H,8,9)
InChIKey=YMAWOPBAYDPSLA-UHFFFAOYSA-N

amino acids Steven Bachrach 17 Jul 2017 1 Comment

Structure of the 2-fluoroethanol trimer

Here is another fine example of the power of combining experiment and computation. Xu and co-worker has applied the FT microwave technique, which has been used in conjunction with computation by the Alonso group (especially) as described in these posts, to the trimer of 2-fluoroethanol.1 They computed a number of trimer structures at MP2/6-311++G(2d,p) in an attempt to match up the computed spectroscopic constants with the experimental constants. The two lowest energy structures are shown in Figure 1. The second lowest energy structure has nice symmetry, but it does not match up well with the experimental spectra. However, the lowest energy structure is in very good agreement with the experiments.

(0.0)

(4.15)

Table 1. MP2/6-311++G(2d,p) optimized structures and relative energies (kJ mol-1) of the two lowest energy structures of the trimer of 2-fluoroethanol. The added orange lines in the lowest energy structure denote the bifurcated hydrogen bonds identified by QTAIM.

Of particular note is that topological electron density analysis (also known as quantum theoretical atoms in a molecule, QTAIM) of the wavefunction of the lowest energy structure of the trimer identifies two hydrogen bond bifurcations. The authors suggest that these additional interactions are responsible, in part, for the stability of this lowest energy structure.

References

(1) Thomas, J.; Liu, X.; Jäger, W.; Xu, Y. "Unusual H-Bond Topology and Bifurcated H-bonds in the 2-Fluoroethanol Trimer," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 11711-11715, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201505934.

InChIs

2-fluoroethanol: InChI=1S/C2H5FO/c3-1-2-4/h4H,1-2H2, InChIKey=GGDYAKVUZMZKRV-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Hydrogen bond &MP Steven Bachrach 20 Oct 2015 1 Comment

Gas phase structure of uridine

To advance our understanding of why ribose takes on the furanose form, rather than the pyranose form, in RNA, Alonso and co-workers have examined the structure of uridine 1 in the gas phase.1


1

Uridine is sensitive to temperature, and so the laser-ablation method long used by the Alonso group is ideal for examining uridine. The microwave spectrum is quite complicated due to the presence of many photofragments. Careful analysis lead to the identification of a number of lines and hyperfine structure that could be definitively assigned to uridine, leading to experimental values of the rotational constants and the diagonal elements of the 14N nuclear quadrupole coupling tensor for each nitrogen. These values are listed in Table 1.

Table 1. Experimental and calculated rotational constants (MHz), quadrupole coupling constants (MHz) and relative energy (kcal mol-1).

 

 

calculated


 

Expt.

anti/C2’-endo-g+

syn/C2’-endo-g+

anti/C3’-endo-g+

anti/C2’-endo-t

syn/C3’-endo-g+

A

885.98961

901.2

935.8

790.0

799.7

925.5

B

335.59622

340.6

308.4

352.6

330.6

300.4

C

270.11210

276.6

266.6

261.4

262.9

264.0

14N1 χxx

1.540

1.50

1.82

1.48

1.46

1.82

14N1 χyy

1.456

1.43

0.73

1.71

1.81

-0.72

14N1 χzz

-2.996

-2.93

-2.56

-3.19

-3.27

-1.11

14N3 χxx

1.719

1.74

2.03

1.78

1.62

1.98

14N3 χyy

1.261

1.11

0.47

1.34

1.51

-0.75

14N3 χzz

-2.979

-2.85

-2.50

-3.12

-3.13

-1.23

Rel E

 

0.0

1.10

1.90

2.00

2.15

In order to assign a 3-D structure to these experimental values, they examined the PES of uridine with molecular mechanics and semi-empirical methods, before reoptimizing the structure of the lowest 5 energy structures at MP2/6-311++G(d,p). Then, comparison of the resulting rotational constants and 14N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of these computed structures (see Table 1) led to identification of the lowest energy structure (anti/C2’-endo-g+, see Figure 1) in best agreement with the experiment. Once again, the Alonso group has demonstrated the value of the synergy between experiment and computation in structure identification.

Figure 1. MP2/6-311++G(d,p) optimized structure of 1 (anti/C2’-endo-g+).

References

(1) Peña, I.; Cabezas, C.; Alonso, J. L. "The Nucleoside Uridine Isolated in the Gas Phase," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 2991-2994, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201412460.

Inchis:

1: Inchi=1S/C9H12N2O6/c12-3-4-6(14)7(15)8(17-4)11-2-1-5(13)10-9(11)16/h1-2,4,6-8,12,14-15H,3H2,(H,10,13,16)/t4-,6-,7-,8-/m1/s1
InChiKey=DRTQHJPVMGBUCF-XVFCMESISA-N

MP &nucleic acids Steven Bachrach 06 Apr 2015 No Comments

Microsolvated structure of β-propiolactone

The structure of water about a solute remains of critical importance towards understanding aqueous solvation. Microwave spectroscopy and computations are the best tools we have today to gain insight on this problem. This is nicely demonstrated in the Alonso study of the microsolvated structures of β-propiolactone 1.1 They employed chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy and MP2(fc)/6-311++G(d,p) computations to examine the structure involving 1-5 water molecules.

The computed structures of these microsolvated species are shown in Figure 1. The deviation of the computed and experimental structures (RMS in the atomic positions) is small, though increasing as the size of the cluster increases. The deviation is 0.014 Å for the 1. H2O cluster and 0.244 Å for the 1.(H2O)5 cluster. They identified two clusters with four water molecules; the lower energy structure, labeled as a, is only 0.2 kJ mol-1 more stable than structure b.

1.H2O

1.(H2O)2

1.(H2O)3

1.(H2O)4 a

1.(H2O)4 b

1.(H2O)5

Figure 1. MP2(fc)/6-311++G(d,p) optimized geometries of the hydrates of 1.

Water rings are found in the clusters having four or five water molecules, while chains are identified in the smaller clusters. One might imagine water cages appearing with even more water molecules in the microsolvated structures.

References

(1) Pérez, C.; Neill, J. L.; Muckle, M. T.; Zaleski, D. P.; Peña, I.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.; Pate, B. H. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 979-982, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201409057.

InChIs

1: InChI=1S/C3H4O2/c4-3-1-2-5-3/h1-2H2
InChIKey=VEZXCJBBBCKRPI-UHFFFAOYSA-N

MP &Solvation Steven Bachrach 24 Feb 2015 1 Comment

Structure of Histidine

The Alonso group has yet again (see these posts) determined the gas-phase structure of an important, biologically significant molecule using a combination of exquisite microwave spectroscopy and quantum computations. This time they examine the structure of histidine.1

They optimized four conformations of histidine, as its neutral tautomer, at MP2/6-311++G(d,p). These are schematically drawn in Figure 1. Conformer 1a is the lowest in free energy, likely due to the two internal hydrogen bonds. Its structure is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 1. The four conformers of histidine. The relative free energy (MP2/6-311++G(d,p)) in kcal mol-1 are also indicated.

Figure 2. MP2/6-311++G(d,p) optimized geometry of 1a.

The initial experimental rotation constants were only able to eliminate 1b from consideration. So they then determined the quadrupole coupling constants for the 14N nuclei. These values strongly implicated 1a as the only structure in the gas phase. The agreement between the experimental values and the computed values at MP2/6-311++G(d,p) was a concern, so they rotated the amine group to try to match the experimental values. This lead to a change in the NHCC dihedral value of -16° to -23° Reoptimization of the structure at MP2/cc-pVTZ led to a dihedral of -21° and overall excellent agreement between the experimental spectral parameters and the computed values.

It is somewhat disappointing the supporting materials does not include the structures of the other three isomers, nor the optimized geometry at MP2/cc-pVTZ.

References

1) Bermúdez, C.; Mata, S.; Cabezas, C.; Alonso, J. L. "Tautomerism in Neutral Histidine," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 11015-11018, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201405347.

InChIs

Histidine: InChI=1S/C6H9N3O2/c7-5(6(10)11)1-4-2-8-3-9-4/h2-3,5H,1,7H2,(H,8,9)(H,10,11)/t5-/m0/s1
InChIKey=HNDVDQJCIGZPNO-YFKPBYRVSA-N

amino acids Steven Bachrach 01 Dec 2014 No Comments

Gas phase structure of 2-deoxyribose

2-deoxyribose 1 is undoubtedly one of the most important sugars as it is incorporated into the backbone of DNA. The conformational landscape of 1 is complicated: it can exist as an open chain, as a five-member ring (furanose), or a six-member ring (pyranose), and intramolecular hydrogen bonding can occur. This internal hydrogen bonding is in competition with hydrogen bonding to water in aqueous solution. Unraveling all this is of great interest in predicting structures of this and a whole host of sugar and sugar containing-molecules.


1

In order to get a firm starting point, the gas phase structures of the low energy conformers of 1 would constitute a great set of structures to use as a benchmark for gauging force fields and computational methods. Cocinero and Alonso1 have performed a laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave (LA-MB-FTMW) experiment (see these posts for other studies using this technique) on 1 and identified the experimental conformations by comparison to structures obtained at MP2/6-311++G(d,p). Unfortunately the authors do not include these structures in their supporting materials, so I have optimized the low energy conformers of 1 at ωB97X-D/6-31G(d) and they are shown in Figure 1.

1a (0.0)

1b (4.7)

1c (3.3)

1d (5.6)

1e (8.9)

1f (9.4)

Figure 1. ωB97X-D/6-31G(d) optimized structures of the six lowest energy conformers of 1. Relative free energy in kJ mol-1.

The computed spectroscopic parameters were used to identify the structures responsible for the six different ribose conformers observed in the microwave experiment. To give a sense of the agreement between the computed and experimental parameters, I show these values for the two lowest energy conformers in Table 1.

Table 1. MP2/6-311++G(d,p) computed and observed spectroscopic parameters for the two lowest energy conformers of 1.

 

1a

1c

 

Expt

Calc

Expt

Calc

A(MHz)

2484.4138

2492

2437.8239

2447

B (MHz)

1517.7653

1533

1510.7283

1527

C (MHz)

1238.9958

1250

1144.9804

1158

ΔG (kJ mol-1)

 

0.0

 

3.3

This is yet another excellent example of the symbiotic relationship between experiment and computation in structure identification.

References

(1) Peña, I.; Cocinero, E. J.; Cabezas, C.; Lesarri, A.; Mata, S.; Écija, P.; Daly, A. M.; Cimas, Á.; Bermúdez, C.; Basterretxea, F. J.; Blanco, S.; Fernández, J. A.; López, J. C.; Castaño, F.; Alonso, J. L. "Six Pyranoside Forms of Free 2-Deoxy-D-ribose," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 11840-11845, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201305589.

InChIs

1a: InChI=1S/C5H10O4/c6-3-1-5(8)9-2-4(3)7/h3-8H,1-2H2/t3-,4+,5-/m0/s1
InChIKey=ZVQAVWAHRUNNPG-LMVFSUKVSA-N

MP &sugars Steven Bachrach 16 Dec 2013 No Comments

Gas-phase structure of cytosine

Alonso and coworkers have again (see this post employed laser-ablation molecular-beam Fourier-transform microwave (LA-MB-MW)spectroscopy to discern the gas phase structure of an important biological compound: cytosine.1 They identified five tautomers of cytosine 1-5. Comparison between the experimental and computational (MP2/6-311++G(d,p) microwave rotational constants and nitrogen nuclear quadrupole coupling constants led to the complete assignment of the spectra. The experimental and calculated rotational constants are listed in Table 1.

Table 1. Rotational constants (MHz) for 1-5.

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

Expt

calc

Expt

calc

Expt

calc

Expt

calc

Expt

calc

A

3951.85

3934.5

3889.46

3876.5

3871.55

3856.0

3848.18

3820.1

3861.30

3844.2

B

2008.96

1999.1

2026.32

2014.7

2024.98

2012.3

2026.31

2019.0

2011.41

1999.7

C

1332.47

1326.8

1332.87

1326.9

1330.34

1323.3

1327.99

1324.0

1323.20

1318.4

The experimental and computed relative free energies are listed in Table 2. There is both not a complete match of the relative energetic ordering of the tautomers, nor is there good agreement in their magnitude. Previous computations2 at CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ//CCSD//cc-pVTZ are in somewhat better agreement with the gas-phase experiments.

Table 2. Relative free energies (kcal mol-1) of 1-5.

 

expt

MP2/
6-311++G(d,p)

CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ//
CCSD//cc-pVTZ

1

0.0

0.0

0.0

2

0.47

0.70

0.7

3

0.11

1.19

0.2

4

0.83

3.61

0.7

5

 

5.22

 

References

(1) Alonso, J. L.; Vaquero, V.; Peña, I.; López, J. C.; Mata, S.; Caminati, W. "All Five Forms of Cytosine Revealed in the Gas Phase," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 2331-2334, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201207744.

(2) Bazso, G.; Tarczay, G.; Fogarasi, G.; Szalay, P. G. "Tautomers of cytosine and their excited electronic states: a matrix isolation spectroscopic and quantum chemical study," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 6799-6807, DOI:10.1039/C0CP02354J.

InChIs

cytosine: InChI=1S/C4H5N3O/c5-3-1-2-6-4(8)7-3/h1-2H,(H3,5,6,7,8)
InChIKey=OPTASPLRGRRNAP-UHFFFAOYSA-N

MP &nucleic acids Steven Bachrach 22 Apr 2013 1 Comment

Structure of 1-aminocyclopropylcarboxylic acid

There are three generic conformations of α-amino acids in the gas phase: A-C. These are stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds. While computations suggest that all three are close in energy, the very detailed laser ablation- molecular beam-Fourier transform microwave (LA-MB-FTMW) experiments of the Alonso group (mentioned in these previous posts: guanine, cysteine, ephedrine) have identified only the first two conformations. Cooling of the structures in the jet expansion appears to be the reason for the loss of the (slightly) higher energy conformer C.

Alonso now reports on the structure of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid 1.1 The three MP2/6-311+G(d,p) optimized conformation are shown in Figure 1. The interaction between the cyclopropyl orbitals and the carbonyl π-bond suggests that only two structures (where the carbonyl bisects thecyclopropyl plane) will exist and that rotation between them may require passage through a prohibitively high barrier. In fact, computations suggest a barrier of 2000 cm-1 (5.7 kcal mol-1). This is much larger than the typical rotation barrier of the amino acids that interconvert A with C, which are about 400 cm-1 (1 kcal mol-1).

1A

1B

1C

After careful examination of the microwave spectrum, all three conformations 1A-C were identified by comparing the experimental value of the rotational constants, and 14N nuclearquadrupole coupling constants with the computed values. Really excellent agreement is found, including in the ratio of the relative amounts of the three isomers. Once again, we have an exquisite example of the importance of computations and experiments being used in conjunction to solve interesting chemical problems.

References

(1) Jimenez, A. I.; Vaquero, V.; Cabezas, C.; Lopez, J. C.; Cativiela, C.; Alonso, J. L., "The Singular Gas-Phase Structure of 1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic Acid (Ac3c)," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133, 10621-10628, DOI: 10.1021/ja2033603

InChIs

1: InChI=1/C4H7NO2/c5-4(1-2-4)3(6)7/h1-2,5H2,(H,6,7)/f/h6H
InChIKey=PAJPWUMXBYXFCZ-BRMMOCHJCR

amino acids Steven Bachrach 04 Oct 2011 No Comments

Gaunine tautomers

Here’s another fine paper from the Alonso group employing laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy coupled with computation to discern molecular structure. In this work they examine the low-energy tautomers of guanine.1 The four lowest energy guanine tautomers are shown in Figure 1. (Unfortunately, Alonso does not include the optimized coordinates of these structures in the supporting information – we need to more vigorously police this during the review process!) These tautomers are predicted to be very close in energy (MP2/6-311++G(d,p), and so one might expect to see multiple signals in the microwave originating from all four tautomers. In fact, they discern all four, and the agreement between the computed and experimental rotational constants are excellent (Table 1), especially if one applies a scaling factor of 1.004. Once again, this group shows the power of combined experiment and computations!


1 (0.0)


2 (0.28)


3 (0.40)


4 (0.99)

Figure 1. Four lowest energy (kcal mol-1, MP2/6-311++G(d,p)) tautomers of guanine.

Table 1. Experimental and computed rotational constants (MHz) of the four guanine tautomers.

 

1

2

3

4

 

Exp

Comp

Exp

Comp

Exp

Comp

Exp

Comp

A

19.22155

1909.0

19.222780

1909.7

1916.080

1908.6

1923.460

1915.6

B

1121.6840

119.2

1116.6710

1113.5

1132.360

1128.2

1136.040

1131.9

C

709.0079

706.6

706.8580

704.2

712.1950

709.5

714.7000

712.0

References

(1) Alonso, J. L.; Peña, I.; López, J. C.; Vaquero, V., "Rotational Spectral Signatures of Four Tautomers of Guanine," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2009, 48, 6141-6143, DOI: 10.1002/anie.200901462

InChIs

Guanine: InChI=1/C5H5N5O/c6-5-9-3-2(4(11)10-5)7-1-8-3/h1H,(H4,6,7,8,9,10,11)/f/h8,10H,6H2
InChIKey=UYTPUPDQBNUYGX-GSQBSFCVCX

MP &nucleic acids Steven Bachrach 05 Oct 2009 3 Comments

Cysteine conformations revisited

Schaefer, Csaszar, and Allen have applied the focal point method towards predicting the energies and structures of cysteine.1 This very high level method refines the structures that can be used to compare against those observed by Alonso2 in his laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy experiment (see this post). They performed a broad conformation search, initially examining some 66,664 structures. These reduced to 71 unique conformations at MP2/cc-pvTZ. The lowest 11 energy structures were further optimized at MP2(FC)/aug-cc-pV(T+d)Z. The four lowest energy conformations are shown in Figure 1 along with their relative energies.

I
(0.0)

II
(4.79)

III
(5.81)

IV
(5.95)

Figure 1. MP2(FC)/aug-cc-pV(T+d)Z optimized geometries and focal point relative energies (kJ mol-1) of the four lowest energy conformers of cysteine.1

The three lowest energy structures found here match up with the lowest two structures found by Alonso and the energy differences are also quite comparable: 4.79 kJ and 5.81 mol-1 with the focal point method 3.89 and 5.38 kJ mol-1 with MP4/6-311++G(d,p)// MP2/6-311++G(d,p). So the identification of the cysteine conformers made by Alonso remains on firm ground.

References

(1) Wilke, J. J.; Lind, M. C.; Schaefer, H. F.; Csaszar, A. G.; Allen, W. D., "Conformers of Gaseous Cysteine," J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2009, DOI: 10.1021/ct900005c.

(2) Sanz, M. E.; Blanco, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L., "Rotational Probes of Six Conformers of Neutral Cysteine," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 4, 6216-6220, DOI: 10.1002/anie.200801337

InChIs

Cysteine:
InChI=1/C3H7NO2S/c4-2(1-7)3(5)6/h2,7H,1,4H2,(H,5,6)/t2-/m0/s1
InChIKey: XUJNEKJLAYXESH-REOHCLBHBU

amino acids &focal point &Schaefer Steven Bachrach 13 Jul 2009 1 Comment

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