Archive for August, 2016

Dynamics in a reaction where a [6+4] and [4+2] cycloadditons compete

Enzyme SpnF is implicated in catalyzing the putative [4+2] cycloaddition taking 1 into 3. Houk, Singleton and co-workers have now examined the mechanism of this transformation in aqueous solution but without the enzyme.1 As might be expected, this mechanism is not straightforward.

Reactant 1, transition states, and products 2 and 3 were optimized at SMD(H2O)/M06-2X/def2-TZVPP//B3LYP-D3(BJ)//6-31+G(d,p). Geometries and relative energies are shown in Figure 1. The reaction 12 is a formal [6+4] cycloaddition, and the reaction 13 is a formal [4+2] cycloaddition. Interestingly, only a single transition state could be located TS1. It is a bispericyclic TS (see Chapter 4 of my book), where these two pericyclic reaction sort of merge together. After TS1 is traversed the potential energy surface bifurcates, leading to 2 or 3. This is yet again an example of a single TS leading to two different products. (See the many posts I have written on this topic.) The barrier height is 27.6 kcal mol-1, with 2 lying 13.1 kcal mol-1 above 3. However, the steepest descent pathway from TS1 leads to 2. There is a second transition state TScope that describes a Cope rearrangement between 2 and 3. Using the more traditional TS theory description, 1 undergoes a [6+4] cycloaddition to form 2 which then crosses a lower barrier (TScope) to form the thermodynamically favored 3, which is the product observed in the enzymatically catalyzed reaction.

1 (0.0)

TS1 (27.6)

2 (4.0)

3 (-9.1)

(24.7)

Figure 1. B3LYP-D3(BJ)//6-31+G(d,p) optimized geometries and relative energies in kcal mol-1.

Molecular dynamics computations were performed on this system by tracking trajectories starting in the neighborhood of TS1 on a B3LYP-D2/6-31G(d) PES. The results are that 63% of the trajectories end at 2, 25% end at 3, and 12% recross back to reactant 1, suggesting an initial formation ratio for 2:3 of 2.5:1. The reactions are very slow to cross through the “transition zone”, typically 2-3 times longer than for a usual Diels-Alder reaction (see this post).

Once again, we see an example of dynamic effects dictating a reaction mechanism. The authors pose a tantalizing question: Can an enzyme control the outcome of an ambimodal reaction by altering the energy surface such that the steepest downhill path from the transition state leads to the “desired” product(s)? The answer to this question awaits further study.

References

(1) Patel, A; Chen, Z. Yang, Z; Gutierrez, O.; Liu, H.-W.; Houk, K. N.; Singleton, D. A. “Dynamically
Complex [6+4] and [4+2] Cycloadditions in the Biosynthesis of Spinosyn A,” J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 3631-3634, DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b00017.

InChIs

1: InChI=1S/C24H34O5/c1-3-21-15-12-17-23(27)19(2)22(26)16-10-7-9-14-20(25)13-8-5-4-6-11-18-24(28)29-21/h4-11,16,18-21,23,25,27H,3,12-15,17H2,1-2H3/b6-4+,8-5+,9-7+,16-10+,18-11+/t19-,20+,21-,23-/m0/s1
InChIKey=JEKALMRMHDPSQK-ZTRRSECRSA-N

2: InChI=1S/C24H34O5/c1-3-19-8-6-10-22(26)15(2)23(27)20-12-11-17-14-18(25)13-16(17)7-4-5-9-21(20)24(28)29-19/h4-5,7,9,11-12,15-22,25-26H,3,6,8,10,13-14H2,1-2H3/b7-4-,9-5+,12-11+/t15-,16-,17-,18-,19+,20+,21-,22+/m1/s1
InChIKey=AVLPWIGYFVTVTB-PTACFXJJSA-N

3: InChI=1S/C24H34O5/c1-3-19-5-4-6-22(26)15(2)23(27)11-10-20-16(9-12-24(28)29-19)7-8-17-13-18(25)14-21(17)20/h7-12,15-22,25-26H,3-6,13-14H2,1-2H3/b11-10+,12-9+/t15-,16+,17-,18-,19+,20-,21-,22+/m1/s1
InChIKey=BINMOURRBYQUKD-MBPIVLONSA-N

cycloadditions &Diels-Alder &Dynamics &Houk &Singleton Steven Bachrach 30 Aug 2016 No Comments

Reaction selectivity in the synthesis of paeoveitol

Xu, Liu, Xu, Gao, and Zhao report a very efficient synthesis of paeoveitol 1 by the [4+2]-cycloaddition of paeveitol D 2 with the o-quinone methide 3.1 What is interesting here is the selectivity of this reaction. In principle the cyloadditon can give four products (2 different regioisomeric additions along with endo/exo selectivity) and it could also proceed via a Michael addition.

They performed PCM(CH2Cl2)/M06-2x/6-311+G(d,p) computations on the reaction of 2 with 3 and located two different transition states for the Michael addition and the four cycloaddition transition states. The lowest energy Michael and cycloaddition transition states are shown in Figure 1. The barrier for the cycloaddition is 17.6 kcal mol-1, 2.5 kcal mol-1 below that of the Michael addition. The barriers for the other cycloaddition paths are at more than 10 kcal mol-1 above the one shown. This cycloaddition TS is favored by a strong intermolecular hydrogen bond and by π-π-stacking. In agreement with experiment, it is the transition state that leads to the observed product.

Michael TS
(20.1)

[4+2] TS
(17.6)

Figure 1. Optimized geometries of the lowest energy TSs for the Michael and [4+2]cycloaddtion routes. Barrier heights (kcal mol-1) are listed in parenthesis.

References

(1) Xu, L.; Liu, F.; Xu, L.-W.; Gao, Z.; Zhao, Y.-M. "A Total Synthesis of Paeoveitol," Org. Lett. 2016, ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.6b01736.

paeoveitol 1: InChI=1S/C21H24O3/c1-5-21-10-14-6-11(2)17(22)8-15(14)13(4)20(21)24-19-7-12(3)18(23)9-16(19)21/h6-9,13,20,22-23H,5,10H2,1-4H3/t13-,20-,21-/m1/s1
InChIKey=LCLFTLPUJXVULB-OBVPDXSSSA-N

paeveitol D 2: InChI=1S/C9H10O2/c1-3-7-5-8(10)6(2)4-9(7)11/h3-5,10H,1-2H3/b7-3+
InChIKey=KWDDAFOCZGDLEG-XVNBXDOJSA-N

3: InChI=1S/C9H10O2/c1-3-7-5-8(10)6(2)4-9(7)11/h3-5,10H,1-2H3/b7-3+
InChIKey=KWDDAFOCZGDLEG-XVNBXDOJSA-N

Diels-Alder Steven Bachrach 02 Aug 2016 No Comments